Joined: Dec 2012
RE: DIY Fuel Ionizer.
After carefully examining all US patents related to "METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TREATING FUEL", I came to the conclusion that what we call 'ionizer' is in fact a fuel catalyst at lower temperature. Please have a look at the following short material I compiled for your review.
NOTE: I took the liberty of making some annotations or to underline some passages (in red) that I believe are most important. As usual, there is always room for further tests. Take all figures with a grain of salt.
THE OPERATION MODE
Empirical evidence has demonstrated that fuel catalysts improve the combustion process in diesel, gasoline, alcohol (both methanol and ethanol), and heating oil. Testing conducted confirmed that treatment of fuel with those elements changed the composition of fuel, in the direction of higher octane, higher energy fuel constituents, for gasoline and diesel. The method of analysis chosen was gas chromatography followed by mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). GC/MS is capable of determining the chemical composition of complex mixtures of organic compounds such as fuels.
The treated gasoline has many more compounds in the higher boiling portion of the chromatogram, indicating that the catalyst elements form these compounds, most likely by cracking longer chain paraffins. Accordingly, the treated gas has much more octane, nonane and decane than the untreated gas, which would mean higher octane. These compounds are mostly aromatic in nature, meaning they are based on benzene. The aromatic hydrocarbons have the most energy per unit carbon, and thus have the highest octane rating, so the catalyst treatment appears to increase octane and energy content of the gasoline by forming aromatic compounds.
Aromatics are generally not very abundant in diesel, so the aromatic derivatives that showed up in the gasoline are absent. Fuel treatment devices have been certified by various agencies which verified substantial decreases in hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon dioxide and fuel soot emissions. Further, tests confirm that the elements act as true catalysts and do not dissolve into the fuel being treated.
It is now believed that the basic underlying mechanism of the operation of the fuel catalyst lies in the liberation of hydrogen gas from the fuel through a catalytic action. The fuel catalyst utilizes antimony, tin, lead and mercury. Antimony and tin, in particular, act as hydride producers in protonic solvents. When acidic groups are present, the elements of the fuel catalyst act in a similar manner to an electrolysis cell. The elements act as a set of short-circuited galvanic cells, in which the one or more elements is a common anode (with a high overvoltage for hydrogen evolution) and one or more elements act as a cathode (with relatively low hydrogen overvoltages). Metal ions leave the common anode while hydrogen gas is evolved from the cathode.
CONSTRUCTION AND FURTHER TESTS
The container can be manufactured from copper. A plurality of catalyst elements are located within the container and are arranged in sets between element spacers (preferably plastic disks with perforations) that permit the passage of fuel from the fuel flow inlet to the fuel flow outlet, during which time the fuel comes into contact with the elements.
The catalyst elements preferably include, apart from impurities, 60 to 80% (weight) tin, 15 to 30% (weight) antimony, 2 to 7% (weight) lead, and 3 to 12% (weight) mercury, and may be formed by casting, extruding, cutting or shaping to have any desired configuration.
In weak acid solutions, both antimony and tin produce the hydrides Stibine (SbH3) and Stannane (SnH4) when a more active electrolytic element (less noble) and a less active electrolytic element (more noble), for example lead and mercury, are present. These hydrides are very unstable and decompose rapidly to produce hydrogen and the parent metal, especially in the presence of dissimilar metals. In hydrocarbon fuels, there are always acidic impurities and water, which is soluble to some extent in all fuels. These supply labile hydrogen ions to the fuel catalyst to allow the liberation of hydrogen in small and safe quantities.
It is therefore believed that the hydrogen resulting from the catalytic
action is responsible for improving the combustion process, allowing the improvements that have been observed in power, reduction of pollutants and particulates, and an increase in mileage.
While it has been known that the introduction of relatively small amounts of hydrogen in hydrocarbon fuels can dramatically increase horsepower and reduce emissions of atmospheric pollutants, it has been difficult to find a safe and simple way of introducing hydrogen into the combustion process. Prior methods of utilizing electrolytic cells, where hydrogen is produced at the cathode, or tanks of compressed hydrogen gas, or palladium-hydrogen systems, where the correct application of heat drives off hydrogen gas, are complicated, bulky and cumbersome. In contrast, the use of the fuel catalyst to produce hydrogen as fuel flows over the catalyst is simple and safe. Utilizing the fuel catalyst, hydrogen is released in proportion to fuel flow. (here comes HCS into play)
In view of the above, it is now possible to analytically design fuel catalysts using hydride producing elements, for example, by utilizing hydride producing elements from Group IV and Group V of the periodic table in combination with elements that are more active and less active on the electrolytic scale. Accordingly, metals such as mercury and lead may be replaced with metals such as zinc, magnesium, aluminum, palladium, silver, copper and cerium. Using the above information, fuel catalyst elements having 40% (weight) zinc, 40% (weight) antimony, 18% (weight) tin and 2% (weight) silver were prepared using a smelting process. For example, the antimony, tin and silver are combined and melted in a crucible at a temperature of 1100-1200 degrees F and stirred until completely alloyed. The zinc is then added to the mixture and it is either poured into molds and cast or dropped to form shot.
The fuel catalyst was then compared with a control using no fuel catalyst. Six independent runs were made for the control, while measurements of CO, CO2, HC and O2 were taken. The averaged results of the six runs are illustrated in Table 1.
Based on the results obtained, it is believed that catalyst elements containing variations of 10-80% (weight) zinc, 20-60% (weight) antimony, 1-5% (weight) silver and 10-30% (weight) tin will yield beneficial results. Other combinations are also possible. A further preferred embodiment includes 39% (weight) zinc, 11% (weight) aluminum, 25 % (weight) tin and 25% (weight) antimony.
CO CO2 HC O2
Mobil 87 Octane (no Catalyst) 2.42 7.94 132 3.5
Mobil 87 Octane (with Catalyst) 0.90 9.07 66 3.1
The interaction between the catalyst elements and the mild steel is not fully appreciated at this time. It is believed that the mild steel is also acting in combination with the catalyst elements as a material that is more active on the electrolytic scale. In order to avoid problems with corrosion of steel mesh, attempts were made to replace the steel screens with non-corrosive #316 stainless steel screens. It was found, however, that #316 stainless steel appeared to adversely impact the efficiency of the fuel catalyst. It was discovered, however, that an alloy of nickel and copper, for example Monel 400 could be successfully utilized in place of the mild steel. Other alloys may also be utilized including Monel 404, Monel 405 and Monel K500, as well as other types of alloys having equivalent properties. For example, brass, copper and alloys of copper and nickel are also suitable. In such cases, it is believed that the copper is acting in combination with the fuel catalyst elements as an element of greater activity on the electrolytic scale.
There is no ionization involved without an external amount of energy, usually a DC electrostatic field with voltages of 400-1000 V applied right on fuel injector nozzle (otherwise ions are shortly neutralized).
Today is today, only today. Tomorrow it will only be yesterday.